lot Platform Design Methodology

lot Platform Design Methodology

Step 1: Purpose & Requirements Specification

 In this step, design or prepare the system purpose, behavior, and requirements (such as data collection requirements, data analysis requirements, system management requirements, data privacy and security requirements, user interface requirements, ...) are captured.

 Step 2: Process Specification

This step, formally described the purpose and requirement specifications of the IoT system.

In a process diagram, the circle denotes the start of a process, the diamond denotes a decision box and the rectangle denotes a state or attribute (design flow chart).

 Step 3: Domain Model Specification

In this step, the IoT design methodology defines the Domain Model.

The domain model describes the main concepts, entities, objects, attributes of the objects, and relationships between objects of the IoT system to be designed.

The domain model provides an abstract view of the IoT domain, which is independent of any specific technology or platform.

 This domain model includes:

. Physical Entity:

A physical Entity is a discrete and identifiable entity in the physical environment (e.g. a room, a light, an appliance, a car, etc.).

The IoT system provides information about the Physical Entity (using sensors) or performs actuation upon the Physical Entity (e.g., switching on a light).

 • Virtual Entity:

A virtual Entity is a representation of the Physical Entity in the digital world.

 • Device:

The device provides a medium for interactions between Physical Entities and Virtual Entities. Devices are either attached to Physical Entities or placed near Physical Entities.

Devices are used to gather information about Physical Entities (e.g., from sensors), perform actuation upon Physical Entities (e.g. using actuators), or used to identify Physical Entities (e.g., using tags).

 • Resource: -

Resources are software components that can be either "on-device" or "network resources".

On-device resources are hosted on the device and include software components that either provide information on or enable actuation upon the Physical Entity to which the device is attached.

Network resources include the software components that are available in the network ( as a database).

 • Service

Services provide an interface for interacting with the Physical Entity.

Services access the resources hosted on the device or the network resources to obtain information about the Physical Entity or perform actuation upon the Physical Entity.

 Step 4: Information Model Specification

This step defines Information Model.

The Information Model defines the structure of all the information in the IoT system.

example, attributes of Virtual Entities, relations, etc.

The information model does not describe “how the information is represented or stored”.

The information model defines the list of the Virtual Entities, their attributes, and the relations of the domain model.

 Step 5: Service Specifications

In this step, Service specifications define the services in the IoT system such as service types, service inputs/output, service endpoints, service schedules, service preconditions, and service effects.

These services either change the state or attribute values or retrieve the current values.

The Mode service is a RESTful web service that sets the mode to auto or manual (PUT request), or retrieves the current mode (GET request).

The mode is updated to/retrieved from the database.

The State service is a RESTful web service that sets the light appliance state to on/off (PUT request) or retrieves the current light state (GET request).

The state is updated to/retrieved from the status database.

The Controller service runs as a native service on the device.

 Step 6: IoT Level Specification

In this step define the IoT level for the system. Five types of IoT deployment levels are used according to different conditions.

IoT Level 1

• This level consists of an air conditioner, temperature sensor, data collection and analysis, and control & monitoring app.
• The data sensed is stored locally.
• All the control actions are performed through the internet.

IoT Level 2

• This level consists of an air conditioner, temperature sensor, Big data (Bigger than level -1, data analysis done here), cloud, and control & monitoring app.
• This level-2 is complex and the rate of sensing is faster compared to level-1.


IoT Level 3

•  this level consists of an air conditioner, temperature sensor, big data collection (Bigger than level-1), cloud (for data analysis), and control & monitoring app.
• Data here is voluminous i.e. big data. The frequency of data sensing is fast and collected sensed data is stored in the cloud as it is big.

IoT Level 4

• This level consists of multiple sensors, data collection and analysis, and a control & monitoring app.
• Data uploaded by sensors to the cloud separately.


IoT Level 5

• This level consists of multiple sensors, coordinator node, data collection and analysis, and control & monitoring app.
• For huge data using multiple sensors at a faster rate and simultaneously.
• The data collection and data analysis is performed at the cloud level using the mobile app or web app.


Step 7: Functional View Specification

In the seventh step define the Functional View.

The Functional View (FV) defines the functions of the loT systems grouped into various Functional Groups (FGs).

Each Functional Group either provides functionalities for interacting with instances of the Domain Model.

A Functional View includes:

·         Device:

The device FG contains devices for monitoring and control.

·         Communication:  

The communication FG handles the communication protocols and  APIs (such as REST and WebSocket) that are used by the services and applications to exchange data over the network. for the IoT system.  

These are the backbone of IoT systems and enable network connectivity.

·         Services:

The service FG includes various services involved in the IoT system such as services for device monitoring, device control services, data publishing services, and services for device discovery.

·         Management:

The management FG includes all functionalities that are needed to configure and manage the loT system.

·         Security:

The security FG includes security mechanisms for the loT system such as authentication, authorization, data security, etc.

·         Application:

The application FG includes applications that provide an interface for the users to control and monitor various aspects of the loT system.

Applications also allow users to view the system status and the processed data.

 Step 8: Operational View Specification

In this step define the Operational View Specifications. IoT system deployment and operation are defined, such as service hosting options, storage options, device options, application hosting options, etc.

• Devices:

The computing device (Raspberry Pi), light-dependent resistor (sensor), relay switch (actuator). . Communication APIS: REST APIs

• Communication Protocols:

Link Layer - 802.11. Network Layer-IPv4/IPv6, Transport -TCP, Application - HTTP.

• Services:

1. Controller Service - Hosted on the device, implemented in Python, and run as a native service.

2. Mode service - REST-ful web service, hosted on a device, implemented with Django-REST Framework.

3. State service - REST-ful web service, hosted on a device, implemented with Django-REST Framework.


Web Application - Django Web Application, Application Server - Django App Server, Database Server - MySQL.

• Security:

Authentication: Web App, Database

• Management:

Application Management - Django App Management

Database Management - MySQL DB Management, Device Management - Raspberry Pi device Management.


Step 9: Device & Component Integration

In this step integration of the devices and components design such as minicomputer, LDR sensor, and relay switch actuator.

 Step 10: Application Development

The final step in the IoT design methodology.

It is to develop the IoT application.

The application has controls for the mode (auto-on or auto-off) and the light (on or off).


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