A model refers to an abstract representation or framework that describes the process of communication between two or more devices or systems.

It helps to understand, design, and implement communication systems effectively.

The two most common models used in data communications, are:


1. OSI Model (Open Systems Interconnection Model):

   - The OSI model is a conceptual framework that standardizes the functions of a telecommunication or computing system into seven distinct layers.

   - Each layer in the OSI model represents a specific function that facilitates communication between devices.

   - The seven layers of the OSI model are Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.


2. TCP/IP Model (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Model):

   - The TCP/IP model is a concise version of the OSI model and is widely used for internet communication.

   - It consists of four layers: Application, Transport, Internet, and Link.

   - The TCP/IP model's layers correspond roughly to the layers of the OSI model, but they are not a perfect match.


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