A file is a collection of records, which are related to each other. 

The file size is limited by the size of memory and storage medium.
There are two important features of file:
1. File Activity
2. File Volatility
File activity defines the percent of actual records which proceed in a single run.
File volatility defines the properties of record changes. It increases the efficiency of the disk from tape.


File-based systems are computerized by the manual file system at a small level. 

It is used for storing and retrieving data.

It crashes in cross-referencing and information processing. 

For example, in a university, a number of students are enrolled in various courses. The university creates separate files for the student's personal details, fees, courses details, details of each faculty member in various departments, etc.

In this file system:-

Information is processed according to each application in a separate master file with its own set of personal files. Ex.  COBOL application.

Sharing of data is very difficult to implement.

Programs and files are dependent on each other.

For example, if we want to retrieve student records in alphabetical order (Sorting the file) of student name and marks then it task is complicated. 

Advantages of the file-oriented system

The advantage is given below

1. Backup:

  • Faster and automatic backup.
  • Provides specific application program for this purpose.

2. Compactness:

  • Store data compactly.

3. Data Retrieval:

  • Provide increased data retrieval techniques for retrieving data from files in an easy and efficient way.

4. Editing:

  • Easy to edit any information stored in the file.
  • Specific application programs(editing software) are used for this purpose.

5. Remote Access:

  • Access data in distributed places .

6. Sharing:

  • Data is shared among multiple users at a same time.

The disadvantage of a File-oriented system:

1. Data Redundancy (useless):

  • The same information may be duplicated in different files. 
  • Redundancy results are in memory wastage.

2. Data Inconsistency (mismatch or not relevant) :

  • due to data redundancy, data may not be inconsistent (updated) state.

3. Difficulty in Accessing Data:

  • Accessing data is not convenient and efficient in the file processing system.

4. Limited Data Sharing:

  • Data are scattered in various files and different formats, different folders, and different departments. so it is difficult to share data among different applications.

5. Integrity Problems:

  • Data integrity means that the data contained in the database in both correct and consistent (unique and authentic). 
  • data stored in the database, which must satisfy correct and constraints.

6. Atomicity Problems:

  • Any operation on a database is not atomic (unique), it must happen in its entirely (partly) or not at all.

7. Concurrent Access Anomalies (irregularity):

  • Multiple users are not access data simultaneously. 
  • Not provide better performance and faster response.

8. Security Problems:

  • The database is not accessible to users in limited way.
  • Each user is not access data concerning according to their requirements only.

9. Incompatible File Formats:

  • Structure of the files is embedded in application programs so it is dependent on application programming languages. Ex.  A COBOL file is quite different from ‘C’ programming language file.
  • Time-consuming and expensive.

10. Fixed Queries:

  • File-based systems are mostly dependent on application programs. So query or report needed by the organization has to be developed by the application programmer.
  • Different types of queries or reports are not possible according to various types of requirements in File Based Systems, so the type of queries or reports is fixed. 


Post a Comment